Monday, January 20, 2020
Why Do Governments Find It So Hard To Control Public Expenditure? Since the 1970's rising public expenditure has become a politically salient issue, with the focus being on the difficulties experienced in trying to control it. In order to answer a question concerning why governments find it hard to control public expenditure it is first necessary to look at the reasons for the growth in public spending. There are three approaches which attempt to give reasons for growing public expenditure which I intend to scrutinise, these are, the societal system approach, the political system approach and the governmental system approach. An evaluation of these approaches should in turn shed light as to why governments find rising public expenditure hard to control. Following this approach which gives a wide outlook on the problems facing governments in controlling public expenditure, I will look at the post 1979 conservative government as it in particular targeted controlling expenditure upon taking office. Under the societal system approach one reason why a growth in public spending can be seen to have occurred is due to Wagner's Ã¢â¬Ëlaw of increasing state activity.' Wagner's claim is that as per capita real income increases in particular nations, they will spend a higher proportion of national product through government. As Wagner's reasons for increased public expenditure tend to be centralised around industrialisation and its associated effects it is not surprising to find that he thought the density of urban living would increase social frictions to such an extent that the government would be called in to handle it. That is to say, urban living would result in the need for enhanced police protection and other forms of government regulation. Wagner also believed that with growing industry certain investments would require so much capital that the state would have to provide it. He thought there would also be public goods that may not be in the interests of an entrepreneur to provide. There are counter arguments to Wagner's suggestions, the first of these is that it could be argued that increased density would provide opportunities for economies of scale. Thus, the proximity of people to one another could result in networks of personal support, lessening the need for public services. Secondly, contrary to Wagner's arguments for public good provision by the state, it is possible to show other countries that either do without it, or provide for user charges. This shifts the burden from general revenues to those who benefit most directly. Another reason for rising government expenditure under the societal system approach is expressed via Tarschy's Ã¢â¬Ëdemonstration effect.' He suggests that the coming of television "has led to increased awareness of the standard of
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Cultural activities are activities where people spend their leisure time attending cultural venues and events. For example, cultural activities include going to art galleries, museums, libraries, operas, concerts and the cinema. People want to get feelings of well-being and gain more knowledge by participating in cultural activities. Participation in cultural activities influences the development of students in many aspects, such as for entertainment and knowledge. The involvement of students in cultural activities can help them develop a well-rounded education. For overseas students in Australia, participating in native cultural activities can also help them reduce culture shock and provide a better way for students to understand more information concerning the history, customs and beliefs in Australia. In a survey concerned with participation in cultural activities among Australian people, it was found that about 85% of the Australian people who aged over 15 years old participated in at least one of cultural activity during the 12 months in 2005-06 (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (ABS) (2007). Going to the cinema was the most popular activity which had the highest percentages at 65% of people. Going to zoological parks and aquariums were the two second most common activities, at 36%; libraries and botanic gardens were at 34% (ABS, 2007). In addition, the same study found that people with higher educational background had considerably higher attendance rates than people with lower educational attainment at art galleries, museums, zoological parks and aquariums, libraries, popular music concerts, other performing arts and the cinema. Moreover, in previous research, it was found that about 25% of respondents went to the library over 20 times during the year. (ABS, 2007). However, little research has been done to compare differences in participation in cultural activities between overseas students in Australia and Australian people. The aim of this research is to find out whether overseas studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ cultural activity behaviors were similar to Australians. Methodology This research was carried out in Navitas English language school on 10th December 2010, and was concerned about the participation in cultural activities of overseas students. Data were collected through questionnaires in the school. The participants consisted of 50 overseas students (25 males and 25 females), who were aged between 18-24 and 25-34, just one person was over 35. The majority of the sample were Chinese; other subjects were from Thailand, Vietnam, Korea, Indonesia, and Japan. The questionnaire, which was administered informally and contained 8 questions, was made up of three sections: demographic information, the type and the frequency of cultural activities. Specifically, 4 questions were developed to record general information; one question was about which cultural activities students participated in; the other 3 items asked about how often students participated in cultural activities per year, involving all cultural activities, going to the library and cinema. The survey was conducted by several groups; each group consisted of 2-3 students. These groups respectively entered different classes to collect data using questionnaires. After collecting this, the data was shared by all groups. Data from questionnaires were then collated and converted to percentages. The results were compared according to gender, education and frequency in graphs.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The multifaceted empire that began with a man and a mouse has rarely failed to please its audiences around the world. Each year, millions of consumers flock to the meccas of entertainment that the Walt Disney Company has created. Countless public relations professionals wonder, How can such a vast Fortune 500 company creates such intimate relationships with consumers? The answer is simple, The Walt Disney Company has a top of the line in-house public relations team that work tirelessly to create, implement and cultivate strategic PR campaigns and internal company policy that draws consumers into the gates of their empire. The Walt Disney World Company has grown substantially in the 92 years since its founding on October 16, 1923. The company now owns 11 theme park resorts, 10 major media networks and the merchandise efforts that come along with their assets. Disney s revenue for 2014 reached 48 billion and with numbers that large and a consumer audience targeted at all ages public re lations tactics are vital to the success of the company. The Walt Disney Company s mission statement is to be, one of the world s leading producers and providers of entertainment and information, using its portfolio of brands to differentiate its content, services and consumer products. (Investor Relations | The Walt Disney Company.). This mission statement has been carried out with the help of the communication professionals on Disney s team. According to a job posting underShow MoreRelatedWalt Disney Mission Statement663 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMISSION AND VISION A vision statement represents the overall goal or purpose of the organization and is described with a global or high level order of words. The statement should be original and peculiar to the organization written in concise terms that are both attractive yet realistic. These statements represents the ideal state of affairs, identifying the future position of the business that the staff are committed to. As for the Walt Disney Company, the vision statement is Ã¢â¬Å" To Make People HappyÃ¢â¬ Read MoreOrganizational Behavior and Communication Essay1273 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBehavior and Communication COM 530 Organizational Behavior and Communication in the Walt Disney Company This paper focuses on the organizational behavior and communication within the Walt Disney Company. This piece contains a discussion on The Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy, mission statement, vision statement and values and its affect on organizational behavior and communication. The Disney Company is an international organization in which communication role plays an importantRead MoreWalt Disney Company s Management Practices1742 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Walt Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Management Practices When most people think of Disney they picture all the rides and the famous character Mickey Mouse. The thought of being anything but an amusement park probably never even crosses the minds of most people. The Walt Disney Company is an extremely successful and lucrative business though and not just because of their fun amusement parks. Sure at the beginning of the business in 1923, it was all about the park and cartoon studio, but now almost one hundredRead MoreWalt Disney s Corporate Strategy1610 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1.Walt DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate strategy is called as Broad Differentiation. The strategy based on three principles which are following; - creating high-quality family content by incorporating a diverse range of businesses to its structure - to be a brand for every member of the family, not only children Ã¢â¬â such as Disney theme parks and resorts, its media network includes ESPN and ABC, Disney Cruise Line, studio productions, consumer products and interactive media channels. - make entertainment experiencesRead MoreFin 370 Ethics and Compliance Paper1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDec/14/2011 Ethics and Compliance Ã¢â¬Å"The mission of the Walt Disney Company is to be one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading producers and providers of entertainment and information. Using our portfolio of brands to differentiate our content, services and consumer products, we seek to develop the most creative, innovative and profitable entertainment experiences and related products in the worldÃ¢â¬ (According toÃ Walt Disney Company Mission StatementÃ (2011) Walt Disney began as a cartoon studio in the 1920s moreRead MoreWalt Disney Organizational Structure1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Walt Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Organizational Structure Organizational structure The Walt Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s organizational structure looks most like a horizontal structure. Horizontal structure is based on departmentalization or subdividing the organization into subunits (Bateman amp; Snell, 2011). The Disney Company has five business segments: interactive media, studio entertainment, consumer products, parks and resorts, and media networks. These departments are grouped by product which is a greatRead MoreDisney Corporation : A Media And Entertainment Corporation931 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesINTRODUCTION The Walt Disney Company is a media and entertainment corporation that is centered in the United States but also spans across North America, Europe, Asia- Pacific, and Latin America. Disney has five main components in which it operates, which includes media networks, parks and resorts, studio entertainment, consumer products, and interactive. The media network component of Disney Corporation includes broadcast and cable television networks, television production operations, televisionRead MoreAssessing the Corporate Culture of Walt Disney Essay2103 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagescorporate culture of Walt Disney, addressing the background of the organization, training and teaching, stories, legends and myths associated with the company, philosophy, values, mission statement and the organizational goals of the company. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Disney Brothers Studios was founded by Walt and Roy Disney in October of 1923. As the brothers increased their reach in the entertainment market, this small studio evolved into the corporate giant known today as the Walt Disney Company which has interestsRead MoreWalt Disney Company1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmarketing has become necessary for an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s survival and The Walt Disney Company (Disney) has been a pioneer in global expansion. Disney was founded in 1923 and is one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world consisting of theme parks, film and record brands, and licensed character brands. Although Disney has captured much of the global market, many of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s locations have remained void of the Disney magic. The key to successfully entering these markets is marketingRead MoreAnalysis Of Walt Disney Company And Discussing All Of The Topics Listed Above1084 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesincluding the companyÃ¢â¬â ¢s background information, strengths weaknesses, opportunities, threats, corporate strategy, business strategy, structures/ controls and recommendations. In this paper I will be analyzing The Walt Disney Company and discussing all of the topics listed above. I will list out different point and them confirm and back them up with the research I have found. Background: The Walt Disney Company is widely known around the world. Strengths When looking at a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths you
Friday, December 27, 2019
Cancer seems to be tightening its grip in India worldwide. Recently, an estimated new cancer cases were recorded to be 14.1 million cancer deaths were of 8.2 million in the world, of which nearly 7,00,000 were recorded in India alone, according to Ã¢â¬Å"The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the specialized cancer agency of the World Health Organization, Lyon. Cancer is a complex group of diseases which makes cells in the body to change and grow out of control. These changes starts from a single cell. Changes can be of permanent alterations to the DNA called mutations. Humans do have a host of defensive mechanism which provides resistance towards damaged cells or mutated cells to reproduce. During life time, thousands ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Other factors include improper diet intake, lack of exercise to the body, smoking, alcohol consumption, these factors are of under human control. The risk factors for breast cancer which are not under control include gender, being a woman is the most significant risk factor for breast cancer as the women breast cells keep on showing its growth alteration because of the cells getting exposed to hormones such as estrogen progesterone other factors include family history of breast cancer, pregnancy and breast feeding etc. Symptoms of breast cancer include formation of lumps, swelling, and cha nges in skin of breast can be seen. Many breast cancers do not show obvious symptoms. So cancer can be treated with surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, immune therapy, targeted therapy and chemotherapy. Although diagnosis is better now, but the difficulty in treating cancer is seen due to metastases. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice, as this treatment is usually curative. Surgery is not a remedial alternative in many patients because of the tumor size, location of the tumor and due to metastases. Another therapeutic measure of cancer is external beam radiotherapy. Nevertheless, treatment by this therapy is not suitable for all the tumors because of the dislocation ofShow MoreRelatedRadiotherapy - One World Essay1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBenefits and Drawbacks of Radiotherapy? Cancer is one of our planets most concerning illnesses at this time. It is the uncontrollable growth and forming of malignant tumours. In 2007, it was said to cause about 13% of all human deaths worldwide (Kleinsmith, Lewis J. M.D). Some cancers may be cured and this depends on certain variables such as the type of cancer, where the cancer is, and how early it has been detected. One method of treatment for cancer is Radiation therapy (Radiotherapy). ThisRead MoreThe Importance Of Exercise Is Impressed Upon Most People From A Young Age Essay1618 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin western countries, especially America, and children are becoming increasingly sedentary (Mitchell, Catenacci, Wyatt Hill, 2011). Obesity is directly related to a plethora of diseases such as diabetes and coronary artery disease, the rates of which will continue to soar if nothing is done (Mitchell et al., 2011). Technological advancements are instrumental in this increase in sedentary behavior, from allowing easier and quicker transportation in automobiles to providing endless amounts of entertainmentRead MoreThe Importance Of Exercise Is Impressed Upon Most People From A Young Age Essay1732 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin western countries, especially America, and children are becoming increasingly sedentary (Mitchell, Catenacci, Wyatt Hill, 2011). Obesity is directly related to a plethora of dis eases such as diabetes and coronary artery disease, the rates of which will continue to soar if nothing is done (Mitchell et al., 2011). Technological advancements are instrumental in this increase in sedentary behavior, from allowing easier and quicker transportation in automobiles to providing endless amounts of entertainmentRead MoreEssay about Pancreatic Cancer1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPancreatic Cancer Cancer of the pancreas is a genetic disease that is the fifth most common cause of death in both men and women. Pancreatic cancer affects approximately 28,000 Americans each year, or five out of 100,000 people (Mayo Clinic, 1998). According to physicians at Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, pancreatic cancer is the challenge of the twenty-first century. So, where exactly is the pancreas located in our bodies, and what does it do? The pancreas is a gland found behind the stomachRead MoreAging And The Aging Process1669 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespredisposed to and its results are an inevitable factor that effects our bodies in several ways, from cataracts development to the progression of memory issues from such diseases as AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s or HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s. The concepts of aging are broken down into two theories widely accepted by several varying fields of studies such as gerontology, the study of the aging process, and oncology, the study of cancer and tumor development. The Cell ular theory, which focuses solely on the idea that a species and individualÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Death Of Breast Cancer1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBreast cancer isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a death sentence as it was before. Women used to fear being diagnosed with this disease because there was no cure for it. Breast cancer has been around for centuries, but the advancement of medicine has increased the chances of survival, and in the future the improvements will be even greater. The first mention of breast cancer was documented in Egypt in 1600 B.C. It was considered a mysterious disease with no cure to it. In The Edwin Smith Papyrus, there are eight cases of tumorsRead MoreA Group of Diseases Charactereized by Uncontrolled Growth Essay1052 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Cancer is an incredibly life changing disease. For those who develop cancer, overcoming it is one of the most arduous battles that they will ever have to face. For the loved ones of a cancer patient, the battle can be one of the most painful events that they will ever witness. According to Proquest database, Cancer is a group of diseases charactereized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. If the spread is not controlled, it can result in dealth. Cancer is caused by both externalRead MoreProstate Cancer : Cancer And Cancer1283 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCancer begins when cells start to grow uncontrollably. Prostate cancer occurs in a maleÃ¢â¬â¢s prostate gland (a small walnut shaped gl and that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm) (Mayoclinic.org, 2015). Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men (Mayoclinic.org, 2015). There are 4 types of prostate cancer such as sarcomas, small cell carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors and transitional cell carcinoma. Most prostate cancer is considered to be adenocarcinomasRead MoreCancer s Reputation Is Dismal And Menacing1155 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesor loved ones is cancer. The word automatically instills fear, confusion, denial, and leaves the individual questioning his or her beliefs wondering Ã¢â¬Å"Why me?Ã¢â¬ . It overpowers all previous commitments or opportunities seizing control over the customary quality of life. Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body often metastasizing elsewhere. With more than two hundred types of cancer that can affect more than sixty organs, cancer kills a half millionRead MoreEssay Cancer1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCancer Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. If the spread of these abnormal cells is not controlled, cancer can cause death. Most cancers take the form of tumors, although not all tumors are cancers. A tumor is simply a mass of new tissue that serves no physiological purpose. It can be benign, like a wart, or malignant, like cancer. Benign tumors are made up of cells similar to the surrounding normal cells and are enclosed in a
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Ã¢â¬ËStay woke,Ã¢â¬â¢ is todayÃ¢â¬â¢s slang for encouraging others to become aware of what is going on in your community, at both the local and national levels. Similarly, political participation, where the people are actively involved in their government, has always been an important part of American history. The foundation in which this republic was built from, was due to the fact that Americans wanted to play an active role in establishing this country. Popular sovereignty, is the doctrine that the power lies in the hands of the people, who vote for representatives, who in essence, run the government. Therefore, the right to vote, is the greatest influence an average American citizen can have, and also enables each and every person to politically participate. It has become crucial that the citizens of this country stay aware of the different factors affecting their daily lives, so that order can be maintained, and future generations can hopefully, live better lives. It is seen throughout AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s history, where people have fought for their rights, and have made it their responsibility to make sure they are guaranteed their natural rights. One right in particular, that both women and African Americans struggled to fight for, was the the right to vote. This has become a huge part of what it means to be an American citizen. It helps to empower the people aside from the government, giving them the opportunity to choose who they want as their representatives that make the laws they abideShow MoreRelatedMarketing Analysis : Coca Cola1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe act of designing a company s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the minds of the target market. There are factors that must be taken into account to produce an effective positioning statement that will attract the attention of the targeted market segment: the cultural dimensions and intricacies of the targeted market, such as language; and the perception of the attrib utes of the product as well as the subjective attributes, or the consumer s perception of the brand itself.Read MoreSony Corporation Is A Japanese Based Technology Company.1262 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesproduct also happened to be the first tape recorder Japan had seen come to market. This product is most likely what influenced the name of Sony, which comes from two names. Ã¢â¬Å"SonusÃ¢â¬ is latin for sonic or sound, and Ã¢â¬Å"sonnyÃ¢â¬ that was common slang in the 1950s for Ã¢â¬Å"boyÃ¢â¬ . Sony s TR-63 radio is the product that cracked open the U.S. market and launched the new industry of consumer electronics. By the mid-1950s, Americans had begun buying portable transistor radios in huge numbers, helping to secure the americanRead MoreCultural Analysis : Chile And The United States2260 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pageshomeland, and a place that I know is very diverse. The United States might be diverse but it still has certain aspects of the culture that apply to everyone. In South America there are twelve countries. Chile is the seventh biggest in the whole country. Chile is a place where it is more modern now, and more modern than any of the other countries. It is consisted of different types of climates, and practices. There are many things that go into a culture and what makes them a unique culture. In thisRead MorePerformance At The Super Bowl Essay2263 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesbetween black men and women and police officers through the War on Drugs, racial profiling, mass incarceration, and policing policies. With her Super Bowl, VMA, and BET award show performances, BeyoncÃ © and her backup dancers dresses, choreography, and other visual elements that give nods towards the Black Power Movement. The links between music and political change make a statement that the time is now for people to speak out against racial injustice and to get Ã¢â¬Å"in formation.Ã¢â¬ When BeyoncÃ © releasedRead MoreA Brief Analysis Of the Counterculture Movement of the 1960s2857 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesterm counterculture refers to a more significant, visible phenomenon that reaches critical mass and persists for a period of time. According to Roszaks definition, the counterculture movement refers to all the protest movements that happened in America in the 1960s, including both the political movements such as the womens liberation movement, the African-American Civil Rights Movement, the antiwar movement against Vietnam, the environment movement, the gay rights movement, and the cultural movementsRead MoreCultural Adaptation7599 Words Ã |Ã 31 Pagesalike, this book opens up important new perspectives on how we understand global creativity. This project gives a detailed how the two countries USA and JAPAN top three manufacturers has entered the market of each other through cultural adaptation. US Top Three Car Manufactures The following are the three largest car manufacturing companies in US. 1. General Motors 2. DaimlerChrysler 3. Ford GM ranked No. 1 among global automakers in total annualRead MoreÃ¢â¬Å"a Study on Consumer Behaviour with Reference to Sony Vaio LaptopsÃ¢â¬ 14338 Words Ã |Ã 58 PagesTwo girls walk into their local CafÃ © Coffee Day outlet. One goes to the counter and purchases two cappuccino coffees and some other pastries. The other sits at the table and opens her Sony Vaio Laptop. Within few seconds, she connects to the internet using AirtelÃ¢â¬â¢s data card. Once on the net, the girl Ã¢â¬Å"GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ name of the band that played the soundtrack of the English movie she saw yesterday. The number of websites comes up with advertisements. One of the advertisements was for the soundtracksRead MorePersonal Computer and Dell4377 Words Ã |Ã 18 Pagesconsists of nine directors.Ã Michael Dell, the founder of the company, serves as chairman of the board and chief executive officer. Board members includeÃ Don Carty,Ã Gray, Judy,Ã Klaus Luft,Ã Alex Mandl,Ã Michael A. Miles, andÃ Sam Nunn. C.Tope Management Michal S Dell Chairman of Board and CEO Jeffrey W clark Vice chairman and President of global operation Brain T Gadden Senior Vice president and Chief financial officer Naamdi j orakwea Executive assistant to CEO Karen h Quintos Senior vice president ChiefRead MoreAlternative Learning Systems9735 Words Ã |Ã 39 Pagesto the authors, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËThe sociology of the college classroom is a sociologically informed teaching practice. It is the application of sociological theory and/or concepts to understand social phenomena that take place at the level of the classroom and other sites of facultyÃ¢â¬âstudent interaction (e.g., advising appointments, informal mentoring)Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (Atkinson et al. 2009:234). The authors argue that sociological theory can inform both teaching methods and student learning. As noted by the editors of the specialRead MoreEssay Writing7014 Words Ã |Ã 29 Pagesthat the examinerÃ¢â¬â¢s logic would conclude that AnnieÃ¢â¬â¢s attention would have been caught by an incessant meowing. Annie would have shifted her gaze to the canopy above and spotted the ill-fated cat. So since this is common sense, practically Ã¢â¬Å"duhÃ¢â¬ (teen slang), why should they include it in their essay? In response, I have always told them to assume that examiners are stupid. They require students to express thoughts explicitly. In view of this problem, the obvious solution is to TRAIN YOUR CHILD TO EXPRESS
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Role of the Management Accountant in Decision Making. Answer: Role of the management accountant in Decision Making According to the Chattered Institute of Management Accountant (CIMA), the management accountants are the persons who are concerned with the analysis, identification, preparation, measurement, accumulation, interpretation and communication of the business and management related information. Such effective business communication with the higher managerial level by the management accountants help in the sustainable use of the available resources. The sustainable use in turn helps the company to grab more profit via optimized revision of the expenditure chart. Garrison, Noreen and Brewer (2006) best described the term management accountant. According to them, they are the people who is concerned with providing information to the managers or the higher managing authority. The management accountants are also involved in the preparation of the financial reports for several non-management groups like the shareholders, regulatory agencies, creditors and tax authorities. Figure: Management Accountant in an Organization (Source: Bamber et al. 2008) Following the industrial revolution, there occurred an increased in the amount of the mechanized production along with size and the complexicity of the process. According to the accounting historians, separation of the ownership in the private limited companies, led to the increase in the number of the companies followed by popularity of the concept of cost accounting or management accountant. Management accountant plays an important part of the organizational economic information system with a principal role in decision-making (Ward 2012). The three areas in which the accounting decision making of management accountant is being practiced are: Strategic Management Performance Management Risk Management For proper implementation of all three above mentioned management plans, the management accountant involve in setting specific goals while directing and controlling them as per the requirement of the company. By directing and controlling, it means that tactical manipulation of the plans and thus manipulating the decision or facilitating in the decision making (Langfield-Smith, Thorne and Hilton 2008). Figure: Steps in decision making (Source: Author) Strategic Management Figure 2: Strategic Management Model in Management Accountant (Source: Isaac Mwita 2000) Performance Management Figure 3: Performance Management Plan in Management Accountant (Source: Author) Importance of Unit Costs Unit cost, which is popularly known as single costing, is the total expenditure that has been incurred by the company to manufacture, store and to sell the product. The unit cost encompasses all the fixed cost, variable cost and the overhead cost along with other direct material/labor cost. In case of Whites Chemicals, the unit costs are dependent of the variables of machine costs, setup costs, receiving cost, material handling and engineering cost (Bebbington and Thomson 2013). In case of Mosby Design and Manufacturing, the fixed overhead expense of $160,000. $88,000 out of $160,000 will not be required if the line is drops below the estimated one. However, $72,000 will still be there as they are common fixed overheads. Thus importance of overhead in Unit costing is huge. The importance of Unit Costing are: It clearly discloses the total cost and cost per unit (cost per unit = total cost of production/total number of unit manufactured). (In case of Mosby Design and Manufacturing, the cost per unit is 16 dollars approx it has a direct affect on the total cost) Determined the total profitable volume of the production Assist in determining the selling price of the product Helps the manufacturer to keep a keen scrutiny on the overall cost of production Helps in the preparation of the tender sheet Helps to make a vivid comparison over the current cost with the previous cost Provides necessary insight over the cost to the higher management (Drury 2013) Importance of Accurate Costing In the absence of the information related to accurate cost, the entire business will be dark. The accurate costing can be regarded as the second most important entity after unit costing that plays a huge role in decision making of the management accountant. The importance of the accurate cost lies in the fact that, It helps in the setting sell price (cost plus or markup on cost): In order to set the sell price, proper and detailed information of the sell price is necessary Helps in proper formulation of the legal defense (if any) against the charges of the predatory pricing practice: Numerous states have laws that prohibits business organization from selling below the cost (apart from special circumstances) and in extreme cases, a business can be charged for labeling artificially low price mostly intended to drive the prospective competitors out of the business. In order to generate the lowest possible market price, the importance of the accurate costing comes in action Helps in the measurement of the gross margin and valuing assets of the organization: The profit level cannot be managed unless and until the organization have definite information about the gross margin or the gross profit (bottom line profit figure). The gross margin is obtained via subtraction of the cost of the goods with the sale revenue. If the gross margin is wrong, the bottom-line net income is wrong and accurate costing helps in the exact calculation of the gross profit of the bottom line profit Promotes selection of the optimal product portfolio: Company at time, may plan to increase their product portfolio or may wish to shift their product line up altogether or may emphasize on advertising on particular product. This selection is done on the basis of the calculation of the capital investment along with yearly turn over and this can only be done via accurate citation (Li et al. 2012) Importance of Choosing Best Method of Assigning Costs and Relevant Costs The importance lies in the fact that it will allow the manager accounting personnel to ascertain the actual sell price of the product in the market so that the company can extrat more profit, much above the gross margin ((Langfield-Smith, Thorne and Hilton 2008; Lambert and Sponem 2012). Conclusion Thus from the above discussion, it clear that their lies a significant importance on of the decision making process of the management accountant. Management accounting helps in effective planning and procurement of the strategies, which in turn helps the higher management to increase their overall financial profit. The help of the management accounts comes in terms of proper analysis of the competitive market along with proper calculation of the accurate cost and unit cost of the product of interest of the organization. In case of White Chemicals, which specializes in the production of the chemicals used in the copper industry, proper information of the accurate and the unit cost is must in order to grab maximum profit. However, compound which is more difficult to manufacture (T-415), needs proper refinement of the sell price via critical application of the unit cost concept by the management accounting personnel. In case of Mosby Design and Manufacturing who is producing 40,000 unit s (RB11) annually, proper assistance from management accountant is mandatory in order to increase the overall manufacturing turnover or to expand the dimension of the product lineup References Bamber, L.S., Braun, K.W. and Harrison, W.T., 2008.Managerial accounting. Pearson Education. Bebbington, J. and Thomson, I., 2013. Sustainable development, management and accounting: Boundary crossing.Management Accounting Research,4(24), pp.277-283. Drury, C.M., 2013.Management and cost accounting. Springer. Garrison, R.H. and Noreen, E.W., 2006. Brewer, peter C.Managerial Accounting, 11th Edition, boston: mcgraw-hill. Isaac Mwita, J., 2000. Performance management model: A systems-based approach to public service quality.International Journal of Public Sector Management,13(1), pp.19-37. Lambert, C. and Sponem, S., 2012. Roles, authority and involvement of the management accounting function: a multiple case-study perspective.European Accounting Review,21(3), pp.565-589. Langfield-Smith, K., Thorne, H. and Hilton, R.W., 2008.Management accounting: Information for creating and managing value. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Li, X., Sawhney, R., Arendt, E.J. and Ramasamy, K., 2012. A comparative analysis of management accounting systems impact on lean implementation.International Journal of Technology Management,57(1/2/3), pp.33-48. Ward, K., 2012.Strategic management accounting. Routledg
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Peter Brook Paper How do you think that Peter Brook has employed the ideas/techniques of the practitioners detailed in Mitters study? Please refer to Brooks own writings, particularly The Shifting Point, in answering this question. Peter Brook is one of the worlds most famous directors and has much in-depth knowledge and experience of the theatre. Brook is a key figure in modern theatre, building on the innovations of earlier practitioners and continuing that uniquely twentieth century institution, the directors theatre. (Halfyard, 2000:http://www.maxopus. com/essays/8songs_m. htm) Brook is known as the leading director of his generation (Peter Hall) and he claims he can take any empty space and call it a bare stage, but where did he get his inspiration? Who are his influences? In this essay, I am going to try and find any similarities between Brooks theatre techniques and those of Konstantin Stanislavsky, Bertolt Brecht and Jerzy Grotowski. I am looking for if he has more preference towards one of these directors or uses a combination of each of their rehearsal methods with his actors. Shomit Mitters study, Systems of Rehearsal, looks at the process of rehearsal according to Brook, associating his rehearsal techniques with those created by Stanislavsky, Grotowski and Brecht. In Mitters introduction at first, I felt a sense of criticism towards Brook; Brook seemed to me more a mimic than an inventor (Mitter, 1992:30) and he mentions the extent of Brooks debt to each of the above directors. Although in the latter part of Mitters introduction, he goes on to say that it is extraordinary how Brook showed such a likeness with such completely different directors: We will write a custom essay sample on Peter Brook specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Peter Brook specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Peter Brook specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer I began to feel that his ability to absorb the influence of vastly dissimilar theatres could only be seen as an achievement. (Mitter, 1992:4) In Brooks study The Shifting Point, looking back on his career in theatre, he speaks about a misunderstanding that exists in theatre which is the assumption that theatrical process falls into two stages; the first: making, and the second: selling. Brook then shows disagreement with Stanislavsky: Even in the title of Stanislavskys great work Building a Character, this misunderstanding persists, implying that a character can be built up like a wall, until one day the last brick is laid and the character is complete. To my mind, it is just the opposite. I would say that the process consists not of two stages but of two phases. First: preparation. Second: birth. This is very different. (Brook, 1987:7) In one of the very few references to Stanislavsky in Brooks book The Empty Space, Brook describes this same subject very briefly, explaining that a character isnt a static thing and it cant be built like a wall. (Brook, 1968:114) This emphasis on how he wants to shape his actors, prove that he wants his actors to be constantly learning, encountering new approaches to acting and experiencing different practical exercises within the rehearsal process. Brook does not refer to Stanislavsky as often as I expected in both The Shifting Point and The Empty Space, whereas Mitters first chapter in his book shows immense comparison between Stanislavsky and Brook. Like Stanislavsky, Brook believes that the entire corpus of objectively available material on the character is insufficient. The actors need a far more detailed picture of the world in which their characters live. (Mitter, 1992:28) This method Stanislavsky employed consisted of questioning each actor and asking each one about their characters lives; the information that was not written in the text. The actors, for example, were asked to answer questions about their individual characters family members, the characters profession and where they lived. The questions were created to give a personal view into the character, thinking how they thought and recognising the depth of the character. In order to be, the actor must feel, and in order to feel, the actor must move from the self to the play via the mind. (Mitter,1992:11) Stanislavsky had accepted how set-design could play in creating emotion. Brook also uses the set to help create emotion; Instead of standing their ground four-square they will now run up and down ladders The life of these exchanges is, at the last, not to come from the actors words but from their actions. Rhythm and impulse, unfound in the lines, will be found in the ladders. (Mitter,1992:38, from The Making of A Midsummer Nights Dream) This meant that whilst the actors were physically climbing up and down the ladders, it was affecting the pace and the impact of the lines spoken; resulting in what Brook required from the start. He had found a way, physiologically rather than psychologically, to generate what he required from the actors. One would note Brooks repeated insistence that he doesnt want things acted. Echoing precisely Grotowskis claim that acting is abandoned in his theatre. (Mitter, 1992:108) Here, Mitter is describing a similarity Brook has to Jerzy Grotowski; how both their ideal theatre performances are true to life. Brook asked his actors not to perform, not to characterise and do a movement as an everyday person would without exaggerating. The actors arent acting, they are being. (Mitter,1992:109, from Peter Brook: A Theatrical Casebook, 1988) Brooks association with these ideas returns in The Shifting Point: A real person is someone who is open in all parts of himself, a person who has developed himself to the point where he can open himself completely- with his body, with his intelligence, with his feelings, so that none of these channels are blocked.